8
THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA: THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF THE
NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIFE
SATISFACTION AND USERS’ SELFESTEEM.
Lídia Serra
1
, Mariana Campaniço
2
PSIQUE • EISSN 21834806 • VOLUME XX • ISSUE FASCÍCULO 1
1
ST
JANUARY JANEIRO  30
TH
JUNE JUNHO 2024 PP. 821
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26619/2183-4806.XX.1.1
Submitted on 22/03/2023 Submetido a 22/03/2023
Accepted on 29/12/2023 Aceite a 29/12/2023
Abstract
The utilization of social media has become increasingly prevalent across various generations,
serving as a platform for individuals to exhibit personal content that may influence other users.
However, there is limited understanding of the impact that the number of followers on social
media platforms can have on the relationship between life satisfaction and users’ self-esteem.
Objective: The primary aim of this research is to examine the mediating effect of the number of
followers on the relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem among Instagram users.
Method: This study included an original sample of 298 participants, as well as two simulated
samples of 2980 and 29800 subjects, all of whom were users of the social media platform Insta-
gram and aged between 18 and 40 years. The research utilized three measurement instruments:
a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Es-
teem Scale. Results: The findings revealed that the number of followers serves as a significant
mediator in the relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem across all applied models.
Additionally, a positive and significant relationship was observed among all these variables in
the three study samples. Conclusion: The number of followers on social media platforms has
been shown to impact the self-esteem of users and contribute to a better understanding of the
effect of life satisfaction on participants’ self-esteem levels. However, caution is needed regard-
ing the use and content shared, as exposure on social media can have positive and negative
impacts on users and influence them. Therefore, the results of this study may contribute to the
development of awareness programs about the use of social media, as well as increasing the dig-
ital literacy of its users.
Keywords: Self-esteem, number of followers, life satisfaction, social media, technology, usage time
1 Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa. Portugal. E-mail: lmserra@autonoma.pt. ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2612-3335.
2 Instituto Superior de Estudos Interculturais e Transdisciplinares – IP de Almada. Portugal. E-mail: marianacampanico@
gmail.com.
9
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
Lídia Serra, Mariana Campaniço
Introduction
Nowadays, the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICTs) constitutes
an intrinsic facet of contemporary society, encompassing personal, professional, and recrea-
tional domains. There has been a consistent rise in the adoption of internet services. Accord-
ing to Eurostat (2022), in 2021, approximately 80% of individuals aged 16 to 74 within the Euro-
pean Union engaged with the internet on a daily basis, with notably higher usage rates observed
among younger demographics (16-29 years). These statistics underscore the escalating signifi-
cance of the internet, particularly social media platforms, in individuals’ lives. It has been noted
that the dissemination of personal life on social media is becoming increasingly effortless and
routine (Dias & Nascimento, 2013), often motivated by users’ desires to compare themselves with
others and emulate their daily habits and behaviors.
Most users believe they are influenced by the posts shared on social media platforms such
as Instagram (Almeida et al., 2018), while simultaneously aiming to expand their network con-
nections within these platforms. Social media platforms are recognized as virtual connections
among groups of individuals united by professional objectives, associations, friendships, among
others, through which they can share and disseminate information (Silvério, 2012). Often, such
sharing occurs without consideration for aspects related to their privacy, security (Borges, 2016),
or how they present their bodies, which has become a concerning issue (Barry et al., 2017).
Among online tools (e.g., social networks, video conferencing platforms, email services,
image and video editors, etc.) social media platforms are especially popular among young peo-
ple, with consumption rates four times higher compared to older age groups (Eurostat, 2022).
These platforms enable virtual communication with other users, facilitating the sharing of writ-
ten information, photographs, music, or videos (Mehdizadeh, 2010; Monteiro et al., 2020). Social
media users aim for their content to be appreciated, gain online followers, and expand their
reach to more people (Chou & Edge, 2012). The number of likes received on posts may depend on
the content of the photographs used and can influence users behavior (Drake et al., 2017).
However, influencers strive to cultivate a greater sense of trust with their followers, aiming
for their content to be increasingly appreciated, practiced, or disseminated (Borges, 2016). Insta-
gram serves as a prime example of a social media platform where users engage in self-promotion
through photographic material or videos, typically accentuating their positive aspects, while
anticipating appreciation and validation from their audience (Monteiro et al., 2020; Moon et al.,
2016).
Individuals with low self-esteem tend to exhibit greater feelings of hopelessness (Çakar, 2014)
and are inclined to conceal their limitations or flaws from others (Kuster et al., 2012), including
within the realm of social media. Self-esteem is defined as an individual’s capacity for self-value
and positive self-regard (Batista et al., 2015). This subjective assessment of ones own worth can
be reinforced or influenced by the consumption of content on Instagram.
In the study by Rodríguez-Suárez et al. (2022) with 321 users, it was found that when exposed
to photographs of people with perfect bodies and ideal beauty, participants showed lower lev-
els of self-esteem and anxiety compared to the control group. This need for human comparison
has been advocated for a long time. For instance, Festinger’s (1954) Theory of Social Comparison
Processes posited that individuals tend to compare themselves with others in various personal
characteristics. The search for similar or different attributes in others is crucial to the process of
10
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
The use of social media: the mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship
between life satisfaction and users’ self-esteem.
self-evaluation. Such situations can heighten concerns that users have about their own appear-
ance when comparing themselves with other social media users (Fardouly et al., 2015).
The presence of low self-esteem leads users to engage in more self-promotion, increased
usage (Mehdizadeh, 2010), or a higher frequency of posting photographs on social media plat-
forms, driven by a growing desire for recognition (March & McBean, 2018). The study by Pop et
al. (2022) identified a positive association between Snapchat usage and users’ self-esteem, but a
negative relationship between users’ weight and TikTok usage. Additionally, Barry et al. (2017)
did not find a significant correlation between self-esteem and the posting of selfies on social
media platforms.
The fact that a user receives likes influences their brain activity and behavior (Sherman et
al., 2018), highlighting brain areas associated with reward (Sherman et al., 2016). Being valued
and recognized leaves a person satisfied. Life satisfaction is considered a positive evaluation that
individuals make of their lives and overall well-being, taking into account personal, relational,
professional, and other aspects (Diener et al., 1985). The Compensation Model underlying life
satisfaction posits that when individuals are dissatisfied in a particular area of their lives, they
tend to seek satisfaction and compensation in other domains or contexts (Nielsen et al., 2011).
This can help explain why many individuals seek refuge in social media when they are feeling
unwell (Vidal et al., 2020). On the other hand, Zhan et al. (2006) identified that social media usage
is associated with higher life satisfaction.
The study by Reina et al. (2010) revealed a noteworthy and positive correlation between
life satisfaction and self-esteem among young individuals, suggesting that contentment with
ones life is linked to self-acceptance and a favorable assessment of life events (Batista et al.,
2015). However, using social media can be negatively associated with individuals’ life satisfac-
tion (Akin & Akin, 2015) and, consequently, their self-esteem. As demonstrated in the study
by Bakioğlu et al. (2022), the presence of fear of missing out online, which includes the need
to belong, the need for popularity, anxiety, and addiction, has a negative impact on the life
satisfaction of social media users. This suggests that the effects of social media usage vary and
have different impacts on the lives of its users (Bakioğlu et al., 2022; Carrotte et al., 2017; March
& McBean, 2018).
Being satisfied with life also entails feeling accepted by peers and feeling liked by others
through the number and type of interpersonal relationships they establish (Harter, 1999), which
increasingly occurs within online contexts, influencing individuals’ self-esteem and well-being
(Valkenburg et al., 2006). Although various studies present different impacts and relationships
among life satisfaction, self-esteem, and the number of followers on social media platforms, the
relationship between these three variables in Instagram users is not yet fully understood. This
leads us to establish hypotheses that life satisfaction and number of followers are positively cor-
related with self-esteem.
Furthermore, scientific studies have revealed that Instagram is being used by users to share
health-related issues (e.g., miscarriage) and seek emotional support through information sharing
(Mercier et al., 2020), identify markers of depression (Reece et al., 2017), raise awareness about
injury prevention through seatbelt use (Drake et al., 2017), and highlight the importance of an
active lifestyle (Carrotte et al., 2017), but the mediating effect of the number of followers in the
relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem of Instagram users is not yet known.
11
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
Lídia Serra, Mariana Campaniço
Valkenburg et al. (2006) identified that when social media users receive positive feedback
on their online profiles, their well-being and self-esteem improve. If we consider that this pos-
itive feedback may be reinforced by the number of followers on the social media platform, we
hypothesize that the number of followers may help mediate the effect of life satisfaction on the
self-esteem of Instagram users.
The main objective of this study is to verify whether the number of followers acts as a
mediator in the relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem. Similarly, it is impor-
tant to explore the presence of significant relationships among life satisfaction, the number
of followers with self-esteem, both within the original sample and in simulated samples of
Instagram users.
Method
Participants
In this study, 298 Portuguese subjects of both genders participated. As inclusion criteria for
the sample, only participants of Portuguese nationality, aged 18 years or older, and daily users of
the Instagram social network were considered.
All participants responded to the study protocol (100%), with 55.7% being female and 44.3%
being male. The participants had a mean age of 25.61 years (±5.62). The majority of participants
reported being in the 22 to 25 age range (36.2%), followed by the age range of 18-21 years (22.8%),
and the age range of 26-29 years (20.8%). Regarding the daily number of hours of Instagram usage,
54.4% used less than 3 hours per day, 33.2% used between 3 and 7 hours, 8.1% used between 7
and 12 hours, and only 4.4% used Instagram for more than 12 hours per day. Lastly, concerning
the number of followers, 8.7% had fewer than 100 followers, 27.2% had between 101 and 500 fol-
lowers, 21.1% had between 501 and 1000 followers, 32.9% had between 1001 and 5000 followers,
and 10.1% had more than 5000 followers on the Instagram social network.
Measures
For this study, a sociodemographic questionnaire was employed to collect information from
participants [e.g., age, gender, number of hours spent using Instagram, number of followers (the
mediating variable)], along with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem
Scale.
The Satisfaction with Life Scale (original version by Diener et al., 1985; Portuguese version
by Simões, 1992) was utilized to assess individuals’ level of life satisfaction and was employed
as the independent variable in the current study. This scale is administered using a five-point
Likert scale (ranging from 1 to 5 points), with scores ranging from a minimum of 5 to a maximum
of 25 points. A higher score indicates greater life satisfaction. The scale demonstrates good psy-
chometric properties, with a Cronbach’s alpha of .77. For the present study, a Cronbachs alpha
of .85 was obtained.
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (original version by Rosenberg, 1965; Portuguese version by
Santos & Maia, 2003) was employed to assess participants’ self-esteem, considered the dependent
12
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
The use of social media: the mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship
between life satisfaction and users’ self-esteem.
variable in this study. This instrument consists of 10 items that are rated on a 4-point Likert scale.
The scale is scored by summing the items, yielding values ranging from 0 to 30 points. A higher
score on this scale indicates a higher level of self-esteem. The scale demonstrates strong psy-
chometric properties, with a Cronbach’s alpha value of .86 in the Portuguese version, and in the
current study, the Cronbach’s alpha was .88.
Procedure
The study protocol was administered online to users of the Instagram social network. The
data collection period took place during the academic year 2021 and 2022. Participants volun-
tarily and without any personal interest took part in the study after being informed of its objec-
tives and providing signed informed consent. The informed consent was formalized through
an online form that participants responded to before starting the protocol response. With this
prior authorization, the researchers ensured that the participant read, understood, and agreed to
all information regarding the research procedure, including data confidentiality. The disclosure
and distribution of the study protocol access link were made only on the Instagram social net-
work, and recording the participant’s name was not considered in order to guarantee anonymity.
For data administration and collection, the Google Forms platform was used, with an estimated
response time of approximately 10 minutes. This study received approval from the scientific
council of ISEIT – IP de Almada, and ethical and deontological responsibilities inherent in the
research were ensured.
Data analysis
For this study, the R programming language and the RStudio integrated development envi-
ronment were used. Data analysis included descriptive statistics of the participants’ characteris-
tics in the original sample (298 subjects). Mean and standard deviation were used for numerical
variables, and frequencies and percentages were used for nominal variables. The Pearson corre-
lation coefficient was employed to study correlations between variables, following verification
of their statistical assumptions. Simulated samples were considered in the study to obtain a better
understanding of the behavior of variables in various analysis scenarios, as well as to help iden-
tify the statistical power of the study (Vasishth & Broe, 2011). Data were estimated through sim-
ulation from the original sample, generating 10 and 100 times more data points, 2980 and 29800,
respectively. The MedGraph-PC program was employed for the mediation analysis, following the
guidelines of Baron and Kenny (1986). To estimate whether the indirect effect is significant, the
Sobel test was applied. Finally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to verify if there
are significant differences between the applied mediation models. The significance level used
was a p-value < .05.
13
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
Lídia Serra, Mariana Campaniço
Results
Correlations between self-esteem, the number of followers, and life satisfaction
In the following table (Table 1), the correlation values found between self-esteem, the number
of followers, and life satisfaction, are presented for the original sample and the two simulated
samples.
TABLE1.
Correlations between self-esteem, the number of followers and life satisfaction.
Self-esteem
298 subjects (original sample)
r p
Number of followers
.311
≈ .001*
Life satisfaction
.509
≈ .001*
2980 subjects (simulated sample)
Number of followers
.337 ≈ .001*
Life satisfaction
.545 ≈ .001*
29800 subjects (simulated sample)
Number of followers
.314 ≈ .001*
Life satisfaction
.546 ≈ .001*
Note: *Significant correlation for p-value = .01; r= Pearson’s correlation; p= p-value
Mediation of the number of followers in the relationship
between life satisfaction and self-esteem
Mediation Model 1
Through the mediation model in the original sample, it was observed how the effect of the
predictor (life satisfaction) influenced the outcome variable (self-esteem) through a mediating
variable (number of followers) which served as an intervening variable to explain this effect.
The level of the effect of the predictor variable passing through the mediator variable caused
an indirect effect on the outcome variable of c’= .478. Additionally, it was found that the effect
of life satisfaction on the number of followers was a=.120 and the effect of the number of fol-
lowers on self-esteem was b=.254. The following figure (Figure 1) illustrates the significant
mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship between life satisfaction and
self-esteem of users in the original sample. Through the Sobel test, it was found to be a signif-
icant model (p.000).
14
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
The use of social media: the mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship
between life satisfaction and users’ self-esteem.
FIGURE1.
Mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem in
a sample of 298 subjects.
Note: [a] = is the effect of the explanatory variable on the mediator; [b] = is the effect of the mediator on the response variable; [c] = total direct
effect of life satisfaction on self-esteem without including the mediator variable. [c’] = indirect effect of life satisfaction on self-esteem consider-
ing the effect of the mediator variable. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.
Mediation Model 2
In this model, it can be observed that the level of the effect of the variable life satisfaction
through the mediator variable caused an indirect effect on the outcome variable (c’= .518). The
effect of life satisfaction on the number of followers was a=.096 and the effect of the number of
followers on self-esteem was b=.287. Figure 2 represents the mediation effect achieved in this
sample (2980 subjects). The Sobel test confirmed it to be a significant model (p.000).
15
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
Lídia Serra, Mariana Campaniço
FIGURE2.
Mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem in
a sample of 2980 subjects.
Note: [a] = is the effect of the explanatory variable on the mediator; [b] = is the effect of the mediator on the response variable; [c] = total direct
effect of life satisfaction on self-esteem without including the mediator variable. [c’] = indirect effect of life satisfaction on self-esteem consider-
ing the effect of the mediator variable. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.
Mediation Model 3
In this last model, it can be observed that the level of the effect of the predictor variable
passing through the mediator variable caused an indirect effect on the outcome variable of c’=
.522. The effect of life satisfaction on number of followers was a=.091 and the effect of number of
followers on self-esteem was b=.267. Figure 3 represents the mediation effect of the model. This
model also proved to be significant, as indicated by the Sobel test (p.000).
16
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
The use of social media: the mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship
between life satisfaction and users’ self-esteem.
FIGURE3.
Mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem in
a sample of 29800 subjects.
Note: [a] = is the effect of the explanatory variable on the mediator; [b] = is the effect of the mediator on the response variable; [c] =
total direct effect of life satisfaction on self-esteem without including the mediator variable. [c’] = indirect effect of life satisfaction on
self-esteem considering the effect of the mediator variable. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.
The following bar chart (Figure 4) illustrates the distribution of effects achieved in each mediation model. However, the results obtained through
ANOVA showed that there are no significant differences between the three mediation models (F= .483; p= .618).
FIGURE4.
Comparison of the three mediation models
17
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
Lídia Serra, Mariana Campaniço
Discussion
The results of the present study initially revealed a positive and significant correlation
between self-esteem, life satisfaction, and the number of followers across all samples, thereby
confirming our study hypothesis.
In the studies by Romdhane et al. (2023) and Szczesniak et al. (2022), a positive and significant
association between life satisfaction and self-esteem was observed. This type of association was
also found in the study by Bozoglan et al. (2013). The use of social media entails social benefits
for its users, which are related to their life satisfaction (Zhan, 2016) and, consequently, to their
self-esteem.
The presence of life satisfaction can contribute to enhancing individuals’ self-worth, self-con-
fidence, and self-respect, thereby increasing their ability to confront various challenges (Batista
et al., 2015), including those encountered online. The study by Uram & Skalski (2022), comprising
309 participants with ages ranging from 18 to 70 years, also found a positive and significant
relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem, indicating that life satisfaction had a sig-
nificant impact on self-esteem, as well as on other variables, such as loneliness, which is also
present in social media users (Kusumota et al., 2022). On the other hand, the study conducted
by Batista et al. (2015) did not find a statistically significant relationship between life satisfac-
tion and self-esteem. However, it is worth noting that dissatisfaction, particularly dissatisfaction
with one’s body, and low self-esteem may coexist when individuals perceive a considerable dis-
crepancy between their actual self and their ideal self (Yu & Yung, 2018).
Despite several studies showing that life satisfaction has a positive relationship with self-es-
teem (Bozoglan et al., 2013; Romdhane et al., 2023; Szczesniak et al., 2022), when attempting to
understand interaction effects between self-esteem and participants’ sociodemographic charac-
teristics (gender versus self-esteem and age versus self-esteem) regarding their life satisfaction,
these effects disappear. This may be justified by the fact that levels of life satisfaction and self-es-
teem vary from men to women and across different ages (Moksnes & Espnes, 2013). Moreover,
even though social media users may occasionally experience some form of social overload due
to various online social commitments, it does not necessarily imply that their life satisfaction
(Zhan, 2016) or self-esteem are affected.
Regarding the number of followers, although our study revealed a positive relationship with
self-esteem, Yu & Yung’s study (2018) uncovered those variables such as appearance evaluation
or body anxiety - characteristics that concern most social media users seeking followers - have
a negative relationship with their self-esteem. It is known that individuals with narcissistic traits
tend to spend more time and share more content on Instagram. However, there seems to be no
relationship between these characteristics and the number of online followers (Moon et al.,
2016). There also appears to be a significant negative relationship between users’ self-promotion
on social media and their self-esteem (Mehdizadeh, 2010). Lower self-esteem and self-control
among social media users are associated with a higher risk of social media addiction (Huaytalla
et al., 2016), which may also result from the pursuit and strong desire to gain more online follow-
ers.
Given the results obtained in the mediation models, we confirmed our hypothesis regarding
a significant mediation of the number of followers in the relationship between life satisfaction
and self-esteem. All mediation models revealed a significant mediating effect of the number
18
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
The use of social media: the mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship
between life satisfaction and users’ self-esteem.
of followers on the relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem, with no significant
differences between them. This indicates that the models demonstrate robustness in explaining
the mediating effect of the number of followers on the social media platform Instagram. The
study by Obada & Dabija (2022) also aimed to verify the mediating effect of social media use in
a large sample composed of 932 subjects. This model also showed a significant mediation effect
when introducing social media use into the relationship between users’ perceived control, con-
centration, time distortion, and trust in online information. Indeed, in modern society, the use
of social media characterizes interactions and symbolic relationships that influence the type of
information consumed and how users think (Dias & Nascimento, 2013). Communication estab-
lished through social media is not only about the content shared but also about the various ways
people influence each other (Bateson & Ruesch, 1965). On the other hand, the study by Kim et
al. (2023) only managed to show a partial mediation effect of social media, in a sample of 120
subjects, when introduced into the relationship between lifestyle and healthy aging. Personal
characteristics of social media users, such as their self-critical perfectionism, may also attenuate
the relationship between life satisfaction and self-esteem (Romdhane et al., 2023).
This study has several limitations. Firstly, it did not take into account the type of content
shared or the types of profiles sought after on the Instagram social network, as it is known that
the type of content influences the exposure, recognition, and self-valuation of social network
users (March & McBean, 2018; Mehdizadeh, 2010), with consequences for their self-esteem. Addi-
tionally, the study did not consider the types of posts used by individuals of different age groups,
as distinct ages present different interests on social networks (Dias & Nascimento, 2013). Lastly,
being a cross-sectional study, it did not allow for an understanding of how the variables assessed
in this investigation impact self-esteem over time. In this regard, longitudinal studies would be
important to comprehend the self-esteem of Instagram users and other social media platforms.
Understanding the reasons behind users’ virtual follower-seeking behavior and analyzing the
differences among populations from different countries are crucial aspects to explore further.
This research sheds light on how the subjective evaluation of life satisfaction and having social
media followers explain the self-esteem of Instagram users. These findings should be consid-
ered by social media managers and mental health professionals to prevent negative effects and
increase awareness about social media usage, as well as digital literacy.
There are no conflicts of interest in this study.
This study did not receive any type of funding.
References
Akin, A. & Akin, U. (2015). The mediating role of social safeness on the relationship berween facebook
(®) use and life satisfaction. Psychological Reports, 117(2), 341-353. https://doi.org/10.2466/18.07.
PR0.117c20
Almeida, S. G., Almeida, A. G., Santos, A.L. & Silva, M. L. (2018). A influência de uma rede social nos padrões
de alimentação de usuários e profissionais de saúde seguidores de perfis fitness. Ensaios e Ciência C
Biológicas Agrárias e da Saúde, 22(3), 194-200. https://doi.org/10.17921/1415-6938.2018v22n3p194-200
19
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
Lídia Serra, Mariana Campaniço
Bakioğlu1, F., Deniz, M., Griffiths, M. D. & Pakpour, A. H. (2022). Adaptation andvalidation oftheOnline-
Fear ofMissing Out Inventory intoTurkish andtheassociation withsocial media addiction, smart-
phone addiction, and life satisfaction. BMC Psychology, 10(1),154. https://doi.10.1186/s40359-022-
00856-y
Baron, R.M. & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator‐mediator variable distinction in social psychological
research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psy-
chology, 51(6), 1173‐1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173
Barry, C. T., Doucette, H., Loflin, D. C., Rivera-Hudson, N. & Herrington, L. L. (2017). “Let me take a selfie:
Associations between self-photography, narcissism, and self-esteem. Psychology of Popular Media
Culture, 6(1), 48-60.https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000089
Batista, H. H. V., Piovezan, N. M. & Muner, L.C. (2015). Relationship between couples self-esteem and life
satisfaction with and without children. Revista PsicoFae, 4(1), 75-88.
Bateson, G. & Ruesh, J. (1965). Comunicación, matriz social de la psiquiatria. Paidós,
Borges, C. N. (2016). A nova comunicação e o advento dos digital influencers: pesquisa realizada sobre blogue-
iras de moda. Intercom – Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos Interdisciplinares da Comunicação. XVIII
Congresso de Ciências da Comunicação na Região Centro-Oeste Goiânia, 1-13.
Bozoglan, B., Demirer, V. & Sahin, I. (2013). Loneliness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction as predictors of
Internet addiction: A cross-sectional study among Turkish university students. Scandinavian Journal
of Psychology, 54(4), 313-319. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12049
Carrotte, E., Prichard, I. & Lim, M. S. C. (2017). “Fitspiration” on social media: a content analysis of gen-
dered images. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(3), e95.
https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.6368
Çakar, F. S. (2014). The effect of automatic thoughts on hopelessness: role of self-esteem as a mediator.
Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(5), 10-16. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2014.5.2132
Chou, H. & Edge, N. (2012). They are happier and having better lives than I am: the impact of using Face-
book on perceptions of others’ lives. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(2), 117-121.
https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0324
Dias, R. & Nascimento, T.C.A. (2013). O impacto das mídias sociais na privacidade das pessoas. Razón y
Palabra, 84, 1-23.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J. & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Per-
sonalityAssessment, 49(1), 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
Drake, S.A., Zhang, N., Applewhite, C., Fowler, K. & Holcomb, J. B. (2017). A social media program to increase
adolescent seat belt use. Public Health Nursing, 34(5), 500-504. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12342
Eurostat. (2022). Digital society statistics at regional level. Eurostat Statistics Explained. Consultado a 15
de julho de 2023. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Digital_soci-
ety_statistics_at_regional_level
Fardouly, J. & Vartanian, L.R. (2015). Negative comparisons about ones appearance mediate the rela-
tionship between Facebook usage and body image concerns. Body Image, 12, 82-88. https://doi.
org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.10.004
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes.Human Relations, 7(2), 117-140. https://doi.
org/10.1177/001872675400700202
Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self: a developmental perspective. Guilford Press.
20
PSIQUE • e-ISSN 2183-4806 • Volume XX • Issue Fascículo 1 • 1
st
january janeiro-30
th
june junho 2024 pp. 8-21
The use of social media: the mediating effect of the number of followers on the relationship
between life satisfaction and users’ self-esteem.
Huaytalla, K.P.C., Vega, S. R. & Soncco, J. J. (2016). Risk of addiction to social networks, self-esteem and
self-control in high school students. Revista Científica de Ciencias de la Salud, 9(1), 9-15. https://doi.
org/10.17162/rccs.v9i1.542
Kim, H.K., Oh, H.S. & Park, C.H. (2023). The mediating effects of social networks and wisdom on the rela-
tionship between lifestyle habits and healthy aging in older adults with chronic diseases. Behavioral
Sciences, 13(8), 688. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13080688
Kuster, F., Orth, U. & Meier, L. L. (2012). Rumination mediates the prospective effect of low self-esteem on
depression: a five-wave longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(6), 747-59.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212437250
Kusumota, L., Diniz, M.A., Ribeiro, R.M., Silva, I.L., Figueira, A.L., Rodrigues, F.R. & Rodrigues, R.A.P. (2022).
Impact of digital social media on the perception of loneliness and social isolation in older adults.
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 30, e3573. https://doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.5641.3526
Lee, J. K. (2022). The effects of social comparison orientation on psychological well-being in social net-
working sites: Serial mediation of perceived social support and self-esteem. Current Psychology, 41,
6247-6259. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01114-3
March, E. & McBean, T. (2018). New evidence shows self-esteem moderates the relationship between
narcissism and selfies. Personality and Individual Differences, 130, 107-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
paid.2018.03.053
Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology,
Behaviour, and Social Networking, 13(4), 357-364. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0257
Mercier, R. J., Senter, K., Webster, R. & Riley, A. H. (2020). Instagram users’ experiences of miscarriage.
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 135(1), 166-173. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003621
Moksnes, U.K. & Espnes, G. A. (2013). Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents-gender and age as
potencial moderators. Quality of Life Research, 22(10), 2921-2928.doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-
013-0427-4.
Monteiro, R. P., Monteiro, T. M. C., Maciel, V.C., Masotti, F.N.A., Freitas, I. M. S. & Candido, J. (2020). This I
will post: exploring the relationship between narcissism, use of Instagram and moderation role of
self-esteem. Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad, 10(2), 55-73.
Moon, J. H., Lee, E., Lee J-A., Choi, T.R. & Sung, Y. (2016). The role of narcissism in self-promotion on Ins-
tagram”. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 22-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.042
Nielsen, I., Smyth, R. & Liu, Y. (2011). The moderating effects of demographic factors and hukou status on
the job satisfaction– Subjective well-being relationship in urban China. The International Journal of
Human Resource Management, 22(6), 1333-1350. https://doi.org.10.1080/09585192.2011.559103
Obada, D.R. & Dabija, D.C. (2022). The mediation effects of social media usage and sharing fake news
about companies. Behavioral Sciences, 12(10), 372. https://doi.org.10.3390/bs12100372
Pop, L. M., Iorga, M. & Iurcov, R. (2022). Body-Esteem, Self-Esteem and Loneliness among Social Media
Young Users. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19, 5064. https://doi.
org/10.3390/ijerph19095064
Reece, A. G. & Danforth, C. M. (2017). Instagram photos reveal predictive markers of depression. EPJ Data
Science, 6(15), 1-12.
Reina, M.C. Oliva, A. & Parra, A. (2010). Percepciones de autoevaluación: Autoestima, autoeficacia y sat-
isfacción vital en la adolescencia.Psychology, Society & Education, 2(1), 55-69.